## Instructor Graham Denham Monday, Friday 10:30-11:20am, or by appointment MWF 9:30-10:30am MC 108 Linear Algebra, Friedberg Insel and Spence, 5th edition, available at the bookstore Mathematics 2120A/B, or permission of the Department. 26 February, 9-10:20am, Talbot College 341 April 23rd, 7pm-9:30pm. 40% 20% Final exam; 35% 50% midterm; 25% 30% assignments

## Synopsis

A week-by-week record of what's going on will appear here. Note that this is a course where class attendance and participation are generally expected, but if you miss a day, you can get some idea of what took place here. I will sometimes include an exercise that's supposed to help you think about the day's class.
• January 6: introduction, outline of course objectives.  Important advice: attend class!
• January 8: review 1: linear transformations and change of basis. Assignment 1 due January 20th.
• January 10: review 2: vector spaces: dual spaces and direct sums. Exercise: show that the evaluation map $$\Psi\colon V\to (V^*)^*$$ is injective.
• January 13: quotient spaces. Eigenvectors and eigenvalues of a linear transformation. Exercise: if $$W$$ is a subspace of $$V$$, show that the map $$V\to V/W$$ that sends $$v$$ to $$v+W$$ is a linear transformation. What's its kernel?
• January 15: Diagonalization I: a review of what to do with a square matrix. We defined algebraic and geometric multiplicity of an eigenvalue, and proved that the first is greater than or equal to the second.
• January 17: Diagonalization II: we characterized diagonalizability by showing that, if the characteristic polynomial splits and the multiplicities above are equal for each eigenvalue, then there exists a basis for the whole space that restricts to a basis for each eigenspace.
• January 20: *no class*
• January 22, 24: The eigenvectors of complex multiplication. Invariant subspaces and cyclic subspaces.
• January 27: We saw that if $$k$$ is the least positive integer for which $$\{v,Tv,T^2v,\ldots,T^kv\}$$ are linearly dependent, then the dependency gives the coefficients of the characteristic polynomial of $$T$$, restricted to the cyclic subspace generated by $$v$$. Exercise: let $$R$$ be a reflection in $${\mathbb R}^3$$. Find all the $$R$$-invariant subspaces, and all the $$R$$-cyclic subspaces. What's the characteristic polynomial of $$R$$?
• January 29: The Cayley-Hamilton Theorem. A typo from class: differentiation $$D\colon V_d\to V_d$$ on polynomials of degree at most $$d$$ satisfies the relation $D^{d+1}t^d=0,$ (not whatever I said.) So $$x^{d+1}$$ divides the characteristic polynomial $$f_D(x)$$. Since $$V_d$$ has dimension $$d+1$$, the polynomial has degree $$d+1$$, and we can conclude that $$f_D(x)=(-x)^{d+1}.$$ Exercise: if a linear operator satisfies $$T^2=I$$ and it isn't the identity, what are its possible characteristic and minimal polynomials? Another exercise: define $$T\colon {\mathbb R}[t]\to {\mathbb R}[t]$$ by letting $T(f(t)) = \int_0^t f(x)dx.$ What can you say about the $$T$$-cyclic subspace generated by a nonzero, constant function?
• January 31: The minimal polynomial. We showed that if $$T\colon V\to V$$ is a linear operator and $$V$$ is finite-dimensional, then its minimal polynomial divides any other polynomial $$p(t)$$ for which $$p(T)=T_0$$. We also showed that each eigenvalue of $$T$$ is a root of $$p(t)$$. So if the characteristic polynomial $$f_T(t)$$ splits into square-free factors, it must be the case that $$f_T(t)=(-1)^n g(t)$$, where $$n=\dim V$$.
• February 3: if the characteristic polynomial splits, the $$p(t)$$ is square-free if and only if the operator is diagonalizable. Lots of examples. Review of partitions. Nilpotent operators. Exercise: find the minimal and characteristic polynomials of $$\partial/\partial x$$ and of $$\partial/\partial y$$, regarded as linear operators on a subspace of real polynomials in the variables $$x,y$$. Some subspaces that make this question interesting are given by taking polynomials with bounds on any of the $$x$$-degree, the $$y$$-degree, or the total degree. Try some small examples -- can you see some patterns? Study assignment: please review direct sums.
• 5 February: let's classify nilpotent operators. Main idea: if $$T\colon V \to V$$ is nilpotent, we can find a basis for $$V$$ consisting of a bunch of $$T$$-cyclic sets.
• 7 February: we find that a nilpotent operator on a $$n$$-dimensional space has a Jordan type, which is a partition of $$n$$. The dimension of the null space is the number of parts, and the minimal polynomial is $$t^k$$, where $$k$$ is the size of the largest part.
• 10 February: the Jordan canonical form I: generalized eigenspaces. Operators with characteristic polynomial $$f_T(t)=(\lambda-t)^n$$ have a Jordan basis. Examples suggest what happens in the general case. For fun(?): let $T(f(x,y)) = f(x,y)+\partial_x f(x,y)+\partial_y f(x,y)$ be a linear operator on polynomials in two variables of degree at most 2. What are the generalized eigenspaces?
• 12 February: more than one eigenvalue. We showed that, if $$T$$ has eigenvalues $$\lambda_1,\ldots,\lambda_m$$, then $V=K_{\lambda_1}\oplus K_{\lambda_2}\oplus\cdots\oplus K_{\lambda_m}.$ In particular, this means that the dimension of the generalized eigenspace for an eigenvalue $$\lambda$$ is equal to $$\lambda$$'s algebraic multiplicity.
• 14 February: computing the Jordan Canonical Form in general. Examples. Two matrices (with split characteristic polynomials) are similar if and only if they have the same Jordan Canonical Form.
• 17-21 February: reading week. 24 February: review. 26 February: midterm! 28 February: no class.
• 2-4 March: Inner products and norms. Remembering the desirable properties of the familiar dot product, we define inner products in general. Exercise: the definition only required linearity on the left-hand side. Check that, with properties 1 to 3, you can prove that, if $$\left<\,,\,\right>$$ is an inner product on $$V$$, then also $\left\lt u,v+w\right\gt =\left\lt u,v\right\gt + \left\lt u,w\right\gt$ for all vectors $$u,v,w\in V$$, and $\left\lt u,cv\right\gt = \overline{c}\left\lt u,v\right\gt$ for all scalars $$c$$ and vectors $$u,v\in V$$.
• 6 March: Orthogonality and the Gram-Schmidt process. Examples: $$\{f_n=e^{i n t}\colon n\in{\mathbb Z}\}$$, the Hermite polynomials, and an orthonormal basis for $$2\times2$$ matrices with respect to the Frobenius inner product. Fourier coefficients.
• 9 March: Orthogonal complements: if $$W$$ is a subspace of a finite-dimensional inner product space $$V$$, then $V\cong W\oplus W^{\perp}.$ An application: Bessell's inequality. Quick exercise: check directly that $$W\cap W^\perp=\{0\}$$.
• 11 March: the adjoint of a linear transformation. Here's the high-level summary. If $$T\colon V\to W$$ is a linear transformation between finite-dimensional inner product spaces, there is a unique transformation $$T^*\colon W\to V$$ satisfying $\left\lt T(v),w\right\gt_W=\left\lt v,T^*(w)\right\gt_V$ for all $$v\in V, w\in W$$. To make it, check that an inner product gives isomorphisms $$V\cong V^*$$ and $$W\cong W^*$$: use them, together with the dual map $$T^\vee\colon W^*\to V^*$$. Watch out for the notation! It seems "$$\cdot^*$$" can mean dual space, adjoint, or conjugate-transpose, depending on where it appears. The matrix of $$T^*$$ with respect to an orthonormal basis is just the (conjugate) transpose of that of $$T$$.
• 13, 16 March: no class 😢
• 18 March: An application: approximate solutions to overdetermined systems of linear equations. If a matrix equation $$Ax=y$$ doesn't have a solution, consider orthogonal projection of $$y$$ onto the column space of $$A$$. This gives you a vector of the form $$y_0=Ax_0$$, minimizing the distance $$||y_0-y||$$. (Exercise: why is that?)
Once you believe that this is what you want to do, though, it isn't too hard to calculate that $$x_0=(A^*A)^{-1}A^*y,$$ noting that the square matrix $$A^*A$$ is invertible by our rank calculation from last week. You can obtain the vector $$y_0$$ by multiplying both sides by $$A$$. Check out the textbook for the example from class, fitting a line through points in the plane.
Next up: if a linear operator $$T\colon V\to V$$ has $$\lambda$$ as an eigenvalue, then $$T^*$$ has $$\overline{\lambda}$$ as an eigenvalue.

• 20 March: struggling a bit with the technology, I showed that, if the characteristic polynomial of $$T$$ splits, then there exists an orthonormal basis $$\beta$$ for $$V$$ with the property that $$[T]_{\beta}$$ is an upper-triangular matrix. We defined an operator $$T$$ to be self-adjoint if $$T=T^*$$, and normal if $$TT^*=T^*T$$. Examples: self-adjoint operators are normal, of course, but not all normal operators are self-adjoint.
• 23 March: more examples of normal operators. A real matrix $$A$$ is orthogonal if $$A^t=A^{-1}$$. (E.g., the matrices for rotation in the plane are orthogonal.) To say that $$A^tA=I_n$$ just means the columns (or, equivalently, the rows) of $$A$$ form an orthonormal basis for $$F^n$$. The complex version of this: a complex matrix $$A$$ is said to be unitary if $$U^*=U^{-1}.$$ An operator $$T$$ is orthogonal (or unitary) if $$[T]_{\beta}$$ is an orthogonal (or unitary) matrix. Now things start to get interesting.
Theorem: If $$T$$ is a normal operator and its characteristic polynomial splits, it has an orthonormal basis of eigenvectors, and conversely.
We looked at examples in both the real and complex cases. Something more special happens for real matrices:
Theorem: If $$V$$ is a (finite-dimensional) real inner product space, an operator $$T\colon V\to V$$ has an orthonormal basis of eigenvectors if and only if $$T$$ is self-adjoint.
This means that real, symmetric matrices are always diagonalizable, and you can find orthonormal bases of eigenvectors for them! See the OWL forums for some key examples.
• 25 March: orthogonal and unitary operators. They are characterized by preserving lengths and inner products. Their eigenvalues have modulus 1. Examples.
• 27 March: more about orthogonal and unitary operators. Unitary operators are closed under composition and inverse: that is, they form a group. On the other hand, Hermitian (/self-adjoint) operators form a vector space, but they're not closed under composition.
• 29 March: the spectral theorem. First, though, we define orthogonal projections as operators $$T\colon V\to V$$ whose image and nullspace are mutually orthogonal. Then we show this is equivalent to having the properties that $$T=T^2$$ and $$T=T^*$$. The first property is sometimes called idempotence. So orthogonal projections are the same as self-adjoint, idempotent operators.
• 1 April: proof of the spectral theorem. The matrix version goes like this: suppose $$A$$ is a $$n\times n$$ normal matrix (if $$F={\mathbb C}$$) or a symmetric matrix (if $$F={\mathbb R}$$). Then there is a unitary matrix $$Q$$ and a diagonal matrix of eigenvalues $$D$$ for which $A = QDQ^*.$ Moreover, if we write $$Q=\big(A_1|\ldots|A_k\big)$$ where the columns of $$A_i$$ all correspond to an eigenvalue $$\lambda_i$$, for $$1\leq i\leq k$$, the matrices $$A_iA_i^*$$ are the orthogonal projections onto the eigenspaces.
Then $A = \sum_{i=1}^k \lambda_i A_iA_i^*\quad\text{and}\quad I_n = \sum_{i=1}^k A_iA_i^*.$

## Syllabus

From the academic calendar: "A continuation of the material of Mathematics 2120A/B including properties of complex numbers and the principal axis theorem; singular value decomposition; linear groups; similarity; Jordan canonical form; Cayley-Hamilton theorem; bilinear forms; Sylvester's theorem." Less formally, Math 2120 sets the stage for linear algebra by introducing vector spaces, bases, and linear transformations. Math 3121 continues with a range of fun topics that all continue from that foundation. Some of these are of great practical use in applications, like the singular value decomposition. Others, like the study of bilinear forms, play a basic role in geometry and physics.

## Assignments

Linear algebra is a skill to develop and practice is essential. Homework assignments, approximately biweekly, will be the most important part of the course. You are encouraged to take them seriously and budget at least three hours per week for homework. Assignments are here. Assignments will be submitted through Gradescope.

Some of the assignment problems will be routine, and some will take some thought.  Collaborating with other people can add a lot to the experience of doing math, and I encourage you to do so.  Just make sure to write your own solutions, your own way, and to acknowledge any debts you may have.  Ask me if in doubt, since presenting the work of others as your own constitutes a serious academic offence. There will be at most six assignments, approximately biweekly. If you submit all of them, I will drop your lowest homework score.

## Exams

There was a midterm on February 26th. The final exam will be a take-home exam, available at noon on April 23rd for 24 hours. Here are some practice problems to help with your review. And some solutions to go with them.

## COVID-19 update

Classes move online starting on March 18th. The final exam will be a take-home exam which I'll ask you to complete and return via Gradescope, on or around April 23rd.

## Math 9050b

The MSc version of this course includes slightly different homework problems, and an additional self-directed written project, to be chosen at the start of term. In this case, the evaluation is weighted as 30% 20% final exam; 25% 30% midterm; 25% 30% assignments; 20% project.  The project is due on the first Monday after the last lecture.

## Further information

Academic dishonesty: Scholastic offences are taken seriously and students are directed to read the official policy

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Support Services: Learning-skills counsellors at the Student Development Centre are ready to help you improve your learning skills. Students who are in emotional/mental distress should refer to Mental Health@Western for a complete list of options about how to obtain help. Additional student-run support services are offered by the USC. The website for Registrarial Services is http://www.registrar.uwo.ca.

Eligibility: You are responsible for ensuring that you have successfully completed all course prerequisites and that you have not taken an antirequisite course. Unless you have either the requisites for this course or written special permission from your Dean to enroll in it, you may be removed from this course and it will be deleted from your record. This decision may not be appealed. You will receive no adjustment to your fees in the event that you are dropped from a course for failing to have the necessary prerequisites.

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